Wheat quality traits and quality parameters of cooked dry white chinese noodles
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Dry white Chinese noodle (DWCN) is widely consumed in China, and genetic improvement of DWCN quality has become a major objective for Chinese wheat breeding programs. One hundred and four bread wheat cultivars and advanced lines, including 88 from major Chinese wheat-producing areas, were sown in two locations for two years. Their DWCN quality, as evaluated by trained panelists, was studied to determine the relationship between wheat quality parameters and DWCN quality attributes. In general, the cultivars and advanced lines used in this study are characterized with acceptable protein content, but accompanied with weak-medium gluten strength and poor extensibility, and substantial variation is observed for all grain and DWCN quality characters. On average, Australia and USA wheat performed better DWCN quality than Chinese wheats. Simple correlation analysis indicated that both grain hardness and Farinograph water absorption were negatively associated with cooked DWCN color, appearance, smoothness, and taste. Flour whiteness and RVA peak viscosity was positively associated with all DWCN parameters, and their correlation coefficients (r) with DWCN score are 0.34 and 0.41, respectively. Their positive contributions to DWCN quality were mostly through improved color, appearance, smoothness, and taste. Farinograph mixing tolerance index (MTI) and softening were negatively associated with all DWCN quality parameters, and their correlation coefficients with DWCN score are -0.50 and -0.54, respectively. Further analysis indicated that association between protein content, Zeleny sedimentation value, Farinograph stability, and Extensograph extensibility, and DWCN score fit quadratic regression model significantly, with R-2 0.12, 0.32, 0.22, and 0.20, respectively. The associations between Zeleny sedimentation value and DWCN's appearance and taste also fit quadratic regression model significantly. This suggests that to certain extent, increased protein content and gluten quality contribute positively to DWCN quality, mostly by improving palatability, elasticity, and stickiness. High flour whiteness, medium protein content, medium to strong gluten strength and good extensibility, and high starch peak viscosity are desirable for DWCN quality. Genetic improvement for flour whiteness, protein quality and starch paste viscosity would increase the DWCN quality of Chinese bread wheat cultivars.
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