Relationship between Phylogeny and Pathotype for the Bacterial Blight Pathogen of Rice
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Several transposable elements were isolated from the genome of Xanthomonas oryzae pv. oryzae. These elements and an avirulence gene isolated from X. oryzae pv. oryzae were used as hybridization probes for a collection of X. oryzae pv. oryzae strains from the Philippines. Each of the sequences was present in multiple copies in all strains examined and showed distinct patterns of hybridizing bands. Phenograms were derived from the restriction fragment length polymorphism data obtained for each of the individual probes and for pooled data from multiple probes. The phenograms derived from the different probes differed in topology and, on the basis of bootstrap analysis, were not equally robust. For all of the probes, including the avirulence gene, some groups (even some haplotypes) consisted of multiple races. The strains were grouped into four major clusters on the basis of the two probes giving the highest bootstrap values. These groups were inferred to represent phylogenetic lineages. Three of the six races of X. oryzae pv. oryzae appeared in more than one of the lineages, and another was present in two sublineages. For three of the races, strains representing different phenetic groups were inoculated on rice cultivars carrying 10 resistance genes. Two new races were differentiated, corresponding to pathogen lineages identified by DNA typing. On the basis of DNA and pathotypic analyses, together with information on the spatial and temporal distribution of the pathogen types from this and other studies, a general picture of X. oryzae pv. oryzae evolution in the Philippines is presented.
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