Dudukuhan Tree Farming Systems in West Java: How to Mobilize Self-Strengthening of Community-Based Forest Management?
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Dudukuhan are traditional tree farming systems in West Java, Indonesia and can be divided into four types: (1) timber systems, (2) mixed fruit-timber-banana-annual crop systems, (3) mixed fruit-timber systems, and (4) fallow systems. Traditionally dudukuhan are managed on an extractive basis, with few inputs (quality germplasm, fertilizers, labor, etc.) allocated to maintain or improve system productivity. Farmers favour this management approach because of limited land tenure, small landholding size, off-farm employment opportunities, limited market access, or their limited experience with intensive tree management. Depending on the socioeconomic conditions and market opportunities the management of a specific piece of land may shift between the four types of dudukuhan. This transformation occurs gradually over a number of years and affects the tree diversity and total number of trees in the system. A desire for tree products, market opportunities, and land tenure status are the key factors that influence farmersâ?? decision concerning which type of dudukuhan to develop. Positive changes in these factors have a positive influence on tree diversity and tree density. Income generation is the primary factor influencing farmersâ?? choice of tree species. Soil conservation is a secondary but important factor influencing both choices of dudukuhan and tree species. Farmers are interested in intensifying the management of their dudukuhans, but hesitate because they do not know where to focus their efforts. Experience indicates that Nanggung farmers may be best served by transforming their traditional subsistence tree farming systems into semi-commercial enterprises that yield products to meet both home and market demand
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