Replication Data for: Urban Lusaka Food Consumption and Nutrition Survey: Role of Fish in Diets of Vulnerable groups uri icon


  • household survey (cross sectional study) was conducted to establish the consumption of fish, fish products and other food items at household level (N=714). The role of fish and fish products in the diets of urban poor households, and how fish consumption is distributed within the household between women, children and men. Women and children in the first 1,000 days of life were specifically targeted. Children aged 24 – 59 months from participating households were also enrolled in the study. Lusaka district in Lusaka Province was purposively selected as the study area for the following reasons: it is an urban area within Lusaka Province with the highest number of high density settlement townships where the majority of the urban poor live in Zambia. The study targeted low-income settlement localities as the people living in these areas are most vulnerable to food and nutrition insecurity. To derive the sample size, the formula was applied; n is the minimum required sample size, Z is the Z score for the desired level of confidence (assumed to be 95% or = 0.05), is the population proportion of interest estimated to be 11%, the prevalence of stunted growth among children in Lusaka (27) and d is the margin of error (assumed to be 5%). The calculated sample size was further adjusted for the design effect and non-response rate (predicted to be 5%), to obtain the optimal sample size of 714 households. A sampling frame was developed from the 2010 Population Census and Housing report, in consultation with the local authorities and the Central Statistics Office (CSO). The sampling process involved, firstly, purposively selecting the three constituencies (Kanyama, Matero and Munali) from Lusaka district. From each constituency, one ward was randomly selected to participate in the study. In each reporting domain, study households were selected using a three-stage randomized cluster approach, with the first two stages using the Ward and Standard Enumeration Area (SEA) sampling frame from the 2010 CSO. A total of 36 SEAs (clusters) were identified and from each, 20 households were selected. Using a determined sampling interval, systematic random sampling was used in the final sampling stage. Primary data collection was carried out through a tablet-based questionnaire and by the use of the KoBo Toolkit, a platform to customise the survey to collect specific data, in this study: a) Demographic and socio-economic characteristics, including employment and income generating activities, water and sanitation, and household assets; b) Dietary diversity questionnaires were developed and used to collect dietary data for children, women and men. Guidelines on food groups to be included in the questionnaire as provided by FAO 2013 were used in developing the questionnaire for women, men and for household level data collection. The WHO 2010 guidelines were used in developing the questionnaire for collecting dietary data for children 6–23 months of age. Dietary diversity is a proxy for adequate micronutrient-density of foods. A 24 hour recall collected data that was used to estimate food intake for two adults within the household (one male and one female), infants aged 6 – 23 months and one child aged 2 – 5 years. Development of the 24 hr recall was based on the methods described by Gibson and Ferguson (2008). In addition, a dietary diversity questionnaire (FFQ) was used collect data on various food groups women, children and men consumed in the last 24 hours prior to the study. With focus on fish in the diet of young children, information was collected on the use of fish in the initiation of complementary feeding, the age at which fish is fed to children, the perceptions of mother and fathers of the importance of fish for growth and development of the young child. c) Anthropometric measurements such as weight and length/height were taken on the children and mothers/caregivers. This was done to enable determine the nutritional status of children 6 -23 months; 24- 59 months and women aged 19 – 49 years. The weights of children were taken using the SECA electronic scale and for those children, who were unable to stand, the parents/guardians were asked to carry them and their weights were subtracted from the mothers' weight. The children's weights were taken to the nearest 0.1 kg with minimal clothes on them. Length/height boards were used to take the length/height to the nearest 0.1 cm. Children's age was verified using the clinic card. The mothers' weight and height were also taken using the SECA scales. The measurements were used to determine mothers' BMI

publication date

  • 2018