Global Food Security Support Analysis Data (GFSAD) at Nominal 1 km (GCAD) Derived from Remote Sensing in Support of Food Security in the Twenty-First Century: Current Achievements and Future Possibilities uri icon

abstract

  • The precise estimation of the global agricultural cropland?extents, areas, geographic locations, crop types, croppingintensities, and their watering methods (irrigated or rain-fed;type of irrigation)?provides a critical scientific basis for thedevelopment of water and food security policies (Thenkabailet al., 2010, 2011, 2012). By year 2100, the global human populationis expected to grow to 10.4 billion under median fertilityvariants or higher under constant or higher fertilityvariants (Table 6.1) with over three-quarters living in developingcountries and in regions that already lack the capacityto produce enough food. With current agricultural practices,the increased demand for food and nutrition would requireabout 2 billion hectares of additional cropland, about twicethe equivalent to the land area of the United States, and lead tosignificant increases in greenhouse gas productions associatedwith agricultural practices and activities (Tillman et al., 2011).For example, during 1960?2010, world population more thandoubled from 3 to 7 billion. The nutritional demand of thepopulation also grew swiftly during this period from an averageof about 2000 calories per day per person in 1960 to nearly3000 calories per day per person in 2010. The food demand ofincreased population along with increased nutritional demandduring this period was met by the ?green revolution,? whichmore than tripled the food production, even though croplandsdecreased from about 0.43 ha per capita to 0.26 ha per capita(FAO, 2009). The increase in food production during thegreen revolution was the result of factors such as: (1) expansionof irrigated croplands, which had increased in 2000 from130 Mha in the 1960s to between 278 Mha (Siebert et al., 2006)and 467 Mha (Thenkabail et al., 2009a,b,c), with the larger estimatedue to consideration of cropping intensity; (2) increase inyield and per capita production of food (e.g., cereal productionfrom 280 to 380 kg/person and meat from 22 to 34 kg/person(McIntyre, 2008); (3) new cultivar types (e.g., hybrid varietiesof wheat and rice, biotechnology); and (4) modern agronomicand crop management practices (e.g., fertilizers, herbicide,pesticide applications)

publication date

  • 2015