A study of genetic diversity among Indian bread wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) cultivars released during last 100 years uri icon

abstract

  • Genetic diversity was examined in a collection of 263 Indian bread wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) cultivars using 90 SSR markers. These cultivars were classified into Group I (pre-green revolution cultivars) and Group II cultivars (post-green revolution cultivars). SSR markers were also classified into Set-I SSRs (42 random genomic SSRs) and Set-II SSRs (48 SSRs associated with QTLs for grain weight). The SSRs belonging to Set-II exhibited relatively low level of polymorphism, suggesting that the SSRs associated with QTL for grain weight in wheat were probably under selection pressure during wheat breeding. AMOVA indicated that proportion of the variation within each of the two groups of cultivars accounted for most (87.59%) of the molecular variance, while the variation between the two groups of cultivars accounted for only 12.41% of the variance. The estimates of the average number of alleles/locus and gene diversity due to each of the two sets of SSRs suggested increase in overall genetic diversity after green revolution in Indian bread wheat cultivars. Differences were also observed in genetic diversity among cultivars from each of the six wheat growing agro-climatic zones of India. However, decade-wise analysis of genetic diversity among the post-green revolution cultivars indicated a progressive decline in genetic diversity, thus suggesting a need for involving diverse exotic, synthetic and winter wheat germplasm in Indian wheat breeding programs

publication date

  • 2012