Assessment of Aflatoxin Exposure among Indian Population uri icon

abstract

  • What impact does dietary exposure to aflatoxins has on hepatocellular carcinomain India? Assessing the connection between aflatoxin contamination in the diets,Hepatitis B virus infection and liver cirrhosis through Hospital based study inAndhra Pradesh, IndiaChronic exposure to aflatoxins was shown to cause impaired growth in children,immune suppression and liver cirrhosis, interference in micronutrient metabolism andreduced human and animal productivity. Acute severe intoxication can result in death.Most importantly, aflatoxin was shown to interact synergistically with Hepatitis Bvirus (HBV) / Hepatitis C virus infection. It increases the risk of hepatocellularcarcinoma (HCC), one of the most common cancers in the developing countries with>400,000 new cases per annum. A joint FAO and WHO committee concluded thatreduced intake of aflatoxins in HBV endemic places will have a greater impact onreducing the incidence of HCC. This requires knowledge on the level of aflatoxinexposure in populations, dietary sources of contamination and household dietarypractices leading to frequent food contamination in order to identify high risk groupsand to develop preventive interventions to mitigate human exposure to aflatoxins.Aflatoxins in human body are metabolized by the liver enzymes and producesaflatoxin 8,9-epoxide, which reacts with albumin in the liver to form AFB1-albuminadducts that are major biomarkers found in peripheral blood. In order to protect humanhealth it is important to be able to estimate aflatoxin-albumin adduct in human blood.Among many methods available for estimation immunochemical methods are simple,cost effective and adaptable to situations in developing countries. Hence this study isproposed to assess the aflatoxin exposure in Indian populations using ELISA whichwill lead to the development of preventive interventions to minimize the risk of liverdisorders and HCC.This thesis is divided into 9 chapters containing subsections. Chapter 1 and chapter 2contains the introduction and review of literature. Chapter 3 contains materials andmethods for the development of antibodies to detect aflatoxin-albumin adduct inhuman blood samples. Chapter 4 contains Results. Chapter 5 and 6 containsdiscussion, summary and conclusion. Chapter 7 contains references, Chapter 8contains appendix and Chapter 9 contains Annexure I, II and Master charts

publication date

  • 2011