Growth and production of groundnut uri icon

abstract

  • The groundnut or peanut is one of the important legume crops of tropical and semiaridtropical countries, where it provides a major source of edible oil and vegetable protein.Groundnut kernels contain 47-53% oil and 25-36% protein. The crop is cultivatedbetween 40ºN to 40ºS of the equator. Groundnut is a self pollinated crop wherebyflowers are produced above ground and, after fertilization, pegs move towards the soil,and seed-containing pods are formed and developed underneath the soil.The productivity of groundnuts varies from 3500 kg/ha in the United States of Americato 2500 kg/ha in South America, 1600 kg/ha in Asia, and less than 800 kg/ha in Africa.This is due mainly to various abiotic and biotic constraints. Abiotic stresses of primeimportance include temperature extremes, drought stress, soil factors such as alkalinity,poor soil fertility and nutrient deficiencies. Groundnuts grow best in light textured sandy loam soils with neutral pH. Optimum temperature for their growth and developmentranges from 28 to 30 ºC; the crop requires about 500-600 mm of well distributed rainfall.The main yield limiting factors in semiarid regions are drought and high temperaturestress. The stages of reproductive development prior to flowering, at flowering and atearly pod development, are particularly sensitive to these constraints. Apart from N, Pand K, other nutrient deficiencies causing significant yield losses are Ca, Fe and B.Biotic stresses mainly include pests, diseases and weeds. Among insects pests podborers, aphids and mites are of importance. The most important diseases are leaf spots,rusts and the toxin-producing fungus Aspergillus

publication date

  • 2010