Integrated foliar diseases management of legumes uri icon

abstract

  • Of the most important food legumes grown world over, chickpea (Cicer arietinumL.), lentil (Lens culinaris Medik.), faba bean (Vicia faba L.), grasspea (Lathyrus sativusL.) and field pea (Pisum sativum L.) are grown in cool season, while pigeonpea (Cajanuscajan (L.) Millsp.), blackgram (Vigna mungo (L.) Hepper), mungbean (V. radiata (L.)Wilczek), horsegram (Macrotyloma uniflorum (Lam.) Verdc.), cowpea (V. unguiculata(L.) Walp) and soybean (Glycine max (L.) Merr) are known as warm season legumes.Biotic stresses such as diseases, insect-pests, nematodes and weeds substantially reducethe yield of these legumes in farmers? fields. Among these, fungi and viruses are thelargest and most important groups affecting all parts of the plant at all stages of growthof both cool season and warm season food legumes. According to estimates made inIndia nearly 10-15% of food legumes production is lost due to diseases alone. Among fungi, diseases caused by species of Botrytis and Ascochyta are of great importance tofaba bean, lentil, chickpea and field pea. The genus Stemphylium causes foliar disease inlentil and chickpea and Septoria species causes leaf spots in cowpea. The viruses ofmajor economic importance on cool season legumes belong to the Luteoviruses,Nanoviruses, Potyviruses, Carlaviruses, Furoviruses. Perusal of the literature on diseasesof food legumes and their management reveals new records of diseases, loss estimations,biology of causal agents, identification of host plant resistance and fungicide use. Thepurpose of this paper is to review the etiology and biology of major foliar diseases of foodlegumes and outline current and suggested future research on issues related to diseasemanagement strategies globally. Integrated disease management (IDM) modules forimportant foliar and viral diseases of chickpea (ascochyta blight and botrytis gray mold),pigeonpea (sterility mosaic and Phytophthora blight), lentil (rust, ascochyta blight andstemphylium blight), faba bean (ascochyta blight, chocolate leaf spot and rust), field pea(powdery mildew and Ascochyta complex), mungbean and urdbean (viral diseases andchocolate leaf spot) and cowpea (viral diseases and chocolate leaf spot) are discussed. TheIDM involves the individual component of disease management such as host plant resistance(HPR), agronomic practices, judicious use of fungicides, pesticides for vector control,biopesticides for pathogen control, risk forecasting that operate on different aspects ofthe disease etiology, such that they complement each other and can be applied togetherin farmers? fields collectively to provide farmers with maximum economic return

publication date

  • 2009