Occurrence of Mycotoxins and Toxigenic Fungi in Groundnut ( Arachis hypogaea L.) Seeds in Andhra Pradesh, India uri icon


  • Andhra Pradesh is one of the major groundnut growingstates in India. A total of 182 groundnut samples collectedat harvesting from farmers fields in five districts,namely; Anantapur, Chittoor, Cuddapah, Kurnool, andMahaboobnagar, during 1999 and 2000 rainy seasonswere evaluated for the presence of mycotoxins (bothaflatoxins and zearalenone) and toxigenic fungi. Insamples collected from each district, average seedinfection by Aspergillus flavus and Fusarium spp. was11.9-18.3% and 5.6-12.8% in 1999, and 9.5-14.1% and9.4-11.9% in 2000, respectively. Among the samplescollected, 20.3% and 16.5% were contaminated withaflatoxin in 1999 and 2000, respectively, and in 11.4%and 8.7% of the seed samples collected in two seasons,the aflatoxin content was >30 mg/kg. An alarmingaflatoxin content of 851.9 mg/kg was found in samplescollected from Anantapur district during the rainyseason in 1999. Zearalenone was not detected in any ofthe samples collected in 1999, while 2 out of 103 samplescollected in 2000 were contaminated with 35.1 and 129.4mg/kg. Under in vitro cultural conditions, 35.8% of the173 A. flavus isolates collected from the groundnutsamples produced aflatoxins at concentrations of 94.3-1598.6 ng/ml and 3% of the 266 Fusarium spp. isolatesproduced 98.1-847.3 mg/g of zearalenone. The resultsemphasize the need for a more systematic and regularmonitoring of pre-harvest aflatoxin contamination

publication date

  • 2002