Spillover impacts of agricultural research: a reviewof studies. Working Paper Series no. 8 uri icon

abstract

  • The spillover impacts of agricultural research are very important for research policy formulation. This paper reviews theexisting literature on the policy effects of research and summarizes the methodologies used for quantifying the spilloverimpacts. Three types of spillover effects have been identified on the basis of the existing literature: across-location spillover,across-commodity spillover, and price spillover effects. The former two are direct effects, and the latter indirect. Acrosslocationor across-environment spillover effects relate to a situation in which a technology developed for one crop at aspecific location can be adopted to improve the production efficiency of the same crop at other locations. Across-commodityspillover effects occur when the technology developed has applicability for other commodities. Price spillover effects occurwhen the technological change for a particular commodity at a specific location increases supply and changes the price of thecommodity at other locations through trade. Two types of measurement techniques, subjective and objective, have been usedto assess spillover effects in agriculture. Subjective estimates are based on value judgments rather than experimental or onfarmyield and cost data, and are often arrived at through elicitation from experts. Objective estimates on the other hand arebased on hard data and evidence reflecting the extent of applicability of a new technology across environments orcommodities beyond the designed research target. Both subjective and objective estimates are used in the empiricalquantification of across-location spillover impacts. However, only a theoretical model (no empirical quantification) isavailable for the estimation of across-commodity spillover. Price spillover effects are estimated in conjunction with theacross-environment technology spillover. Studies have quantified across-location spillover impacts using economic surplusmodels, subjectively and objectively. Quantification of spillover benefits from germplasm research conducted at ICRISATwould be very useful in research evaluation and policy planning

publication date

  • 2001