A Pictorial Guide for the Identification of Mold Fungi on Sorghum Grain uri icon


  • Sorghum is one of the main staple food crops of the world's poorest and most food-insecure people. Approximately90% of the world's sorghum areas are located in Africa and Asia. During 1992-94, 42% of the total sorghumproduced worldwide was utilized for food, and 48% for animal feed. A preliminary study was conducted tounderstand the various storage conditions of sorghum grain, and the potential occurrence of mold fungi under suchconditions. A total of 67 sorghum grain samples were collected from two surveys, 15 samples from the 1996 rainyseason harvest, and 11 from the 1996/97 postrainy season harvest collected in June 1997, and 19 samples fromthe 1996/97 postrainy season and 22 from 1997 rainy season harvest collected in October 1997. Approximately1 kg grain from each of the grain lots stored under various conditions (gunny bags, mud-lined baskets, metalliccontainers, polypropylene bags, and grains piled in a corner of a room) by farmers in rural India was collected.Each grain sample (200 grains treatment1) was examined to identify fungi up to the species level. Grains with andwithout surface sterilization were transferred separately to pre-sterilized petri dish humid chambers under asepticconditions. The petri dishes were incubated for 5 days at 28±1 °C in an incubator with a 12-h light cycle. Under eachtreatment, 200 grains (25 grains dish-1) were examined for 49 mold fungi, including the species of Aspergillus andPenicillium. The major fungi observed on the grains included species of Alternaria, Curvularia, Drechslera,Fusarium, and Rhizopus. The frequency of occurrence of the various fungi on each grain sample under the varioustreatments was analyzed. This bulletin reports some new mold fungi on sorghum grain in India: Alternaria longipes,Bipolaris zeicola, Curvularia affinis, C. clavata, C. fallax, C. geniculata, C. harveyi, C. ovoidea, C. pallescens, C. tuberculata, Drechslera halodes, Gonatobotrys simplex, Nigrospora oryzae, Periconia macrospinosa, Spadicoidesobovata, Torula graminis, and Trichothecium roseum

publication date

  • 1999